The Federal Reserve has proposed a new set of rules and regulations that would directly hold big banks (those with at least $50 billion in assets) more accountable for capital (they’d be required to hold more of it), liquidity and risk management, among other issues. The result for consumers is mixed, since more fiscally sound institutions help avoid another collapse in the banking sector, but in the short term it means fewer loans and a possible impediment to economic recovery.
The new directives, released on Dec. 20, are forged from the hot iron of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in June 2010. But they’re also a nod to the woes big banks are having in debt-ravaged Europe.
Congress summarizes the Dodd-Frank legislation as a bill “to promote the financial stability of the United States by improving accountability and transparency in the financial system, to end ‘too big to fail,’ to protect the American taxpayer by ending bailouts, to protect consumers from abusive financial services practices, and for other purposes.”To fulfill the promise to “protect the American taxpayer,” the Fed is mandating several new specific proposals, which could have definite implications for consumers. The proposals include:
- Risk-based capital and leverage requirements. In large part, this rule requires firms to develop annual capital plans, conduct stress tests, and maintain adequate capital, including a tier-one common risk-based capital ratio greater than 5% of assets (the previous standard was 4%), under both expected and stressed conditions.
- Liquidity requirements. Big banks would be subject to qualitative liquidity risk management standards that would require companies to conduct internal liquidity stress tests and set internal limits to manage liquidity risk.
- Stress tests. Stress tests of the companies would be conducted annually by the Board using three economic and financial market scenarios. A summary of the results, including company-specific information, would be made public. In addition, the proposal requires companies to conduct one or more company-run stress tests each year and to make a summary of their results public.
- Early remediation requirements. Big banks would be required to address “financial weaknesses” at an early stage, as determined by the Fed. According to the Fed’s Dec. 20 statement, the Board is proposing a number of triggers for remediation – such as capital levels, stress test results and risk-management weaknesses – in some cases calibrated to be forward-looking. Required actions would vary based on the severity of the situation, but could include restrictions on growth, capital distributions, and executive compensation, as well as capital raising or asset sales.